In Nepal, majority of households still burn solid fuels in inefficient cook stoves inside poorly ventilated kitchens, which results in very high levels of indoor pollutants, including black carbon (BC). Previous studies have not yet reported BC concentrations in typical kitchen configurations in rural Nepal. In this study, fine particulate matter (PM) and BC concentrations were monitored continuously inside two types of kitchens (separated from and attached to the main house) under actual cooking practices. Prior to monitoring of pollutants, a field survey was conducted to gain insight into the types of kitchens, cook stoves and fuels used. Indoor PM and BC concentrations were monitored using biomass fuels in traditional cook stoves (TC) and improved cook stoves (ICS). Clear diurnal variations of the pollutants were observed in both kitchens, with the highest concentrations during cooking times. BC and PM concentrations during cooking and non-cooking periods demonstrated clear reductions in the concentrations during non-cooking periods. It was observed that the concentrations rose steeply during the first half hour of cooking, then decreased slightly and finally leveled off to the non-cooking period concentrations. 24-hour average indoor PM concentrations in both kitchens frequently exceeded Nepal's indoor air quality standards and the WHO PM2.5 guidelines, by a factor of ~8 to ~28. We found that the specific type of ICS used in this study, a commonly used ICS in Nepal and other developing countries might help in PM emission reductions but not necessarily BC emission reduction.
- Publication Year
- Publication Type
- Academic Articles
Rupakheti, D., Kim Oanh, N. T., Rupakheti, M., Sharma, R. K., Panday, A. K., Puppala, S. P., & Lawrence, M. G. (2019). Indoor levels of black carbon and particulate matters in relation to cooking activities using different cook stove-fuels in rural Nepal. Energy for sustainable development, 48, 25-33. doi:10.1016/j.esd.2018.10.007.
- Staff involved
- Projects involved
- A Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat)