Poland is the third largest producer of hydrogen in the EU, with around 1.3 million tonnes produced every year. This grey hydrogen is generated almost exclusively from steam methane reforming and utilised mainly by the chemical, petrochemical, steel and food sectors. The emergence of low-carbon hydrogen technologies has captured a significant interest by various Polish stakeholders, including both oil and gas sector incumbents, renewable energy promoters and local governments. In 2021, the Polish Hydrogen Strategy until 2030 with an outlook until 2040 was published as the first official government strategy affecting low-carbon hydrogen development. The document presents an optimistic and ambitious approach to hydrogen potential, with a focus on domestic production and use in multiple sectors. This is despite the fact that production of low-carbon hydrogen in Poland could face significant challenges, such as a relatively low availability of clean electricity, reliance on natural gas imports and limited experience with CCS. Issues regarding the global hydrogen market and international trade are largely omitted. This paper analyses the possible background of this fact, as well as the factors affecting the future Polish approach to the European and global hydrogen market. Although Poland would not be a frontrunner in these developments, we believe that it could become a pragmatic participant. In fact, we note that Polish companies, including state-owned enterprises, have already launched some relevant cooperative initiatives at European level.
- RIFS Discussion Paper und RIFS Working Paper
Smoleń, M., & Żelisko, W. (2023). International Dimension of the Polish Hydrogen Strategy: Conditions and Potential for Future Development. RIFS Discussion Paper, June 2023.
- Beteiligte Projekte
- Geopolitik der Energietransformation: Implikationen einer internationalen Wasserstoffwirtschaft (GET Hydrogen)